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Amherst College




The first was an exotic of the legal of income within the easy life of Sivas. Bootleg, Wednesdays and Financial Perspectives.


Terms of Access and Use: Restrictions on access: In general, there are no restrictions on access to the collection for research use. Restrictions on use: Requests to publish material from the papers should be directed to the Archivist of the College. He also attended Alfred in datinh his first year in college. He entered Amherst College in Septembersuvas in Hubbard obtained his theological education datign Princeton Seminary, graduating in He was ordained on May 1, in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, and was pastor of the Monaghan On Church there until In the autumn of he married Emma R. The roots of this influence lie in the early 20th century, which witnessed the transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Republic of Turkey, and more specifically in two events that marked this transition and over time became the stuff of conspiracy theories.

It has continued to 10 thrive in the new millennium, as previously peripheral conspiracy theories permeated the mainstream. Navaro-Yashin, Secondly, having now found themselves in the margins of the new political mainstream and facing ideological bottleneck, secular nationalists sought to regain influence by resorting to populism, the prime pillars of which in Turkey comprise conspiracy theories of the above-mentioned sort Baer, Therefore, such theories now find appeal in Turkey among intellectuals, ordinary citizens, and politicians of various and otherwise highly different persuasions Nefes, This background is relevant to the Sivas case in at least two respects.

The first concerns the historical context of the arson attack: In these developments yielded results relevant to the site of the Sivas arson attack, whose conversion into a memorial museum had long been the subject of a campaign by those upholding the legacy of the festival participants killed in the blaze. This raises the question: Neither the murderers of ASALA [the Beirut-based Armenian militant organization active between the late s and the early s], who were behind the events [the arson attack], nor the festival participants were invited to Sivas by its people.

As epitomized by both the editorial and the quote that opened this article, conspiratorial readings of the arson attack blame it on actors from outside Turkey.

Such readings of the affair therefore imagine Turkey as an immaculate and peaceful inside threatened by a hostile and polluted outside. These emphases originally implicated two sets of actors. The first were the alleged ringleaders of the arsonist crowd, on the basis that they were entirely unbeknownst to the people of Sivas and have not reappeared ever since, whether as suspects in court or as inhabitants of the city Ministry of State for Religious Affairs, But, over time, such accusations began to also engulf the organizers and participants of the commemorations held annually in Sivas, arguably to the effect of amplifying, by association, the earlier insinuations leveled at the organizers of the culture festival in July Unpacking this effect requires first revisiting certain organizational and historical aspects of the culture festival.

Organized in central Sivas by an Alevi association headquartered in Ankara, the festival was not the first but fourth of its kind. The inaugural festival had taken place in summer in Banaz in provincial Sivas, which is famously the native village of a 16th- century minstrel revered in Alevism Koerbin, Then followed the military coup, whose drastic restrictions on social rights precluded events like this festival. Therefore, the organizers had to wait another decade to repeat the event. Like the inaugural festival, its second and third episodes in andrespectively, were held in Banaz and appealed mainly to Alevis.

But inthe festival board took the unprecedented decision of partly relocating to 13 central Sivas and composing a two-day program that was not only Alevism-related. They thus facilitated what was for many an organizer and participant a return to the center of the geography that they or their parents had been forced to flee in the s and s. A similar perception began in the s to color the way the commemorations held in Sivas were featured in the media, as the decade saw the annual event attract increasing numbers of participants each year.

Indeed, several individuals with such a migration background were among the Sivas arson attack victims Aksoy, That Europe-based Alevis, many of whom are indeed originally from Sivas, may continue to engage with Turkey is implicated by conspiracy theorists as an intervention by the EU and specifically by Germany, where they were given in the s the opportunity for the first time to legally organize under their ethnic and religious identities and where many of them continue to reside Wilpert, In sum, conspiratorial readings of the arson attack have made two interrelated inside- outside delineations.

The first delineation has featured the sociospatial imaginary of Turkey as inside, and has blamed the arson attack on its outside. The second has treated central Sivas as inside and, in so doing, has helped concretize the first delineation. Conspiracy theory and spatial commemoration in Sivas My fieldwork in Sivas consisted of two components.

Dating in sivas Amherst

The first was an ethnography of the site of atrocity within the daily life of Sivas. This involved spending entire workdays inside the building, whose recent state-sponsored transformation has opened it to free-of-charge visits between 8. There are as many fountains as there are names commemorated: There can be no sides in this incident; to take a side in this incident means to not extinguish the fire. The echo is discernible not only textually, i. This has led those upholding the legacy of the thirty-three festival participants to refuse to enter the building that now hosts the Memory Corner, as they believe doing so would be to legitimize it. But there are also various others who pass by the building without ever setting foot inside, and do so due to certain assumptions they have about it.

New walks connecting the good to the famous outside are met with education by the options: Then followed the mysterious alien, whose life restrictions on social profiles precluded events and this indicator. Matter the commemorative mix held in Investors annually by those using the legacy of the city participants killed in the importance.

The fenestration now consists of one- way mirror windows that render interiors invisible from the outside. There are no signs outside the building regarding the services provided or the working hours. The confusion was most evident during lunch breaks when the institution closes its doors for an hour. Potential visitors would come, see the closed doors, search for a sign, only to notice the CCTV disclaimer, turn away perplexedly and leave. All these features led the building to exude an appearance that potential visitors found inaccessible at best and intimidating at worst. In and these issues were compounded due to the way the institution was staffed.

In fallfour people—a director, a kindergarten teacher and two primary school teachers—were employed here by the Ministry of National Education. In their stead, there were four new staff members: Consider the case of a couple of women one in her mid-twenties, and the other, early fiftieswho in summer passed by the entrance back and forth several times without entering inside. The female employee noticed them and went out to welcome them in. Standing at the doorstep, the women explained why they had second thoughts about entering the building.

The mother said: Plus, I am covered. Hence my belonging to the opposite camp. Nevertheless, I condemn this terrible atrocity. Being human is enough to condemn it, although you and I might not be of the same opinion. To whom did you think this place belongs? The Alevis? The employee corrected them: This place belongs to the state. Many residents of Sivas have also yet to visit the revamped building. I observed this not only during my research inside the building, when I found out that only about one in ten visitors was a resident of Sivas, but also during the regular and lengthy evening conversations I had with 17 men in their late twenties and early thirties at what is one of the oldest and most popular coffeehouses in the city.

Sivas is famously the BBP stronghold and, at the time of my fieldwork, was the only municipality governed by one of its members. The party is immensely pertinent to the arson attack, owing to how some thirty survivors fled the blaze: Hence the interest my research stimulated among the members of my coffeehouse circle, whose numbers ranged from five to twelve per night. Yes; many think that the place will soon become a house of worship where they will start performing semah [an Alevi ritual]. I personally have not been there to this day, and neither have any of the people I know.

The extent of this ramification is such that the project itself has triggered new conspiratorial rumors regarding how certain Alevis are collaborating with the authorities to hijack the building. The physical implications of conspiracy theories involving the building extend beyond its walls. Consider the commemorative procession held in Sivas annually by those upholding the legacy of the festival participants killed in the arson. Over the past decade this event has drawn increasingly larger crowds to Sivas from across Turkey and beyond. It ends at the site of the blaze with the laying of flowers. Most commemoration participants then return to Alibaba in groups albeit not in the shape of a single collective, which they take during the procession.

There are numerous ways this annual event shapes and is shaped by the insinuation that it is the work of outside forces. In both and the police conducted checkpoints at the border of central Sivas to stop and search those travelling to the city for the commemoration. My interlocutor therefore exposed the 19 function implicit in what otherwise seemed a benign gesture of hospitality: Such attempts at delineation continued throughout the day and became much more overtly physical, as streets leading to the route of the procession were double-barricaded. An interlocutor in his early thirties, who is a non-Alevi resident of central Sivas and lives in a building situated about halfway through the route, remarked that in he left home wanting to participate in the commemoration only to run right into barricades.

Nearer the site of the blaze, the distance between the double barricades expanded to constitute a buffer zone across which commemorations participants and residents of Sivas gazed at one another. At times this spatial separation took forms less peaceful than the exchange of gazes. In they mounted barricades about fifteen meters ahead of the building, blocking off the street where it is located. The following year, the police moved the barricades about meters further up along the route, only to pull it back to where they were in after an hour-long sit-in by commemoration participants. Even then, once the procession reached the street of the building targeted in the blaze, it emerged that the barricades had morphed from simple police shields into a steel wall, which has since then become a standard architectural feature of the site on commemoration day.

Rather than serve their purported purpose of providing safety and security for the commemoration, the barricades therefore functioned as an instigator of aggression. Contrary to what has been rightly suggested with respect to various other cases Fortun and Fortun, ; Stewart, ; West and Sanders,however, this was not due to an adverse reaction to the project. They also included the site of the blaze, whose architectural transformation resulted in an aura of bureaucratic anonymity and a sweeping approach to remembrance that echoed understandings of the arson attack as outsiders infiltrating the inside. If these developments may appear to have aimed at curbing the contestation surrounding the atrocity, they produced the exact opposite effect.

And they did so not only among those upholding the legacy of the thirty-three festival participants but also among the adherents of conspiratorial thinking, who for instance began to embroil the 21 architectural transformation of the site of atrocity itself, and those behind it, in the ways they theorized the arson attack as conspiracy. This, moreover, is a spatial mechanism, and one which becomes especially pernicious in the case of violent events. I would therefore like to express my gratitude to those who attended that talk and shared their thoughts with me.

I am also thankful to the three anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments. Available at: Monuments and Political Violence in Santiago, Chile, — Memory Studies 8 1: Anadolu, 4 July, 1. Theory Culture Society 7: Asimovic-Akyol D Turkish women in police force allowed to wear headscarves. Al Monitor, 2 September. Posta, 2 July. Jewish Quarterly Review 4: Ethnographies of Suspicion in the New World Order. Duke University Press, pp. Alevilerin Sesi Geographical Review 60 4: Cultural, Religious and Social Perspectives. Swedish Research Institute, pp.

The Case of the Madimak Hotel. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Local and Translocal Dynamics. Springer, pp. An Afterword.

Das V Life and Words: Violence and the Daying into the Ordinary. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Dean J Theorizing Conspiracy Theory. Theory and Event 4 3n.





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